Entropy Limited and the Institute for Medical Risk Studies (aka: Entropy Institute for Risk Studies), with the support of private foundations, risk and insurance organizations, academic institutions, and state and national governmental agencies in the U.S. and the U.K., as well as the cooperation of international agencies such as the World Health Organization, Interpol, NATO and UN offices in New York, Geneva and Vienna, have conducted a number of projects addressing bio-medical risks. Risks range from unintentional deficiencies in quality-of-care and possible medical malpractice, to problems of computerized medical record error or misuse, to the prevention and prosecution of the intentional use of disease by criminals or terrorists around the world.
Quality of Care and Medical Malpractice Risk Factors
The Institute for Medical Risk Studies and Entropy Limited analyzed early warning risk factors in hospital incident reports. Over 100,000 incident reports and over 5000 civil liability claim files from over a dozen major medical centers covering a 10 year period in California were assessed to identify factors indicative of the rare but important severe events. This work provided factual support for recommendations to improve incident early warning systems, proactive liability claims management systems, and quality assurance systems in medical centers, biomedical laboratories, university hospital, prison hospitals and other public health care facilities. (Under a two-year grant to the Institute from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, in cooperation with the University of California and Los Angeles County professional risk management programs.)
Medical Malpractice Claims Experience Analysis
Under contract with Professional Risk Management Corporation (now Octagon Risk Services, a St. Paul Company), EL conducted statistical analyses of ten years of medical malpractice claims against the medical center and its doctors, nurses and other staff for the third-party claims administrator for the University of California hospitals and clinics.
Trends in Medical Claims
For the Stanford Medical Center, the Institute for Medical Risk Studies and EL, analyzed and projected trends in claims against the university medical center.
Cerebral Palsy Conference
With the support of the United Cerebral Spastic Children's Foundation and the California March of Dimes Foundation, and the cooperation of the University of California Office of the President and the Administrator of the County of Los Angeles, the Institute for Medical Risk Studies organized, conducted and documented an international conference on cerebral palsy in Malibu, California.
With the support and cooperation of the University of California Office of the President, Office of Risk Management and Office of Hospitals and Clinics, the Institute for Medical Risk Studies organized, conducted and documented an international conference on HIV/Aids held at the University of California at San Francisco, California.
Quality of Medical Care: Information for Consumers
Under contract with the U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), and in cooperation with Duke University, Univ. of Minnesota, Univ. of Arizona, Univ. of California, National Association of Health Data Organizations, Western Consortium for the Health Professions, Inc., WorZd Development Group, Inc., and The RAND Corp., the Institute for Medical Risk Studies helped develop information for consumers on the quality of care in medical facilities in the U.S. and contributed to the OTA report available from the U.S. GPO, NTIS order #PB89-102180.
Improving Medical Records
The Institute for Medical Risk Studies developed information on the status of patient medical records for the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine (IOM). This work was cited in the report of the IOM Committee on Improving the Patient Record.
Management of Negligence/Medical Malpractice Risks
Data on 7000 open clinical negligence/medical malpractice claims in the United Kingdom was entered into a data base and analyzed by Entropy Management Limited (UK)/RMT to develop improvements in risk assessment/risk management programs. A series of national conferences and workshops were produced in conjunction with UK universities, health authorities and royal medical societies on clinical quality, risk assessment and risk management. (For the QRM-PRM under contract to the UK Department of Health, National Health Services, Regional Health Authorities.)
Primary Care Information System
Entropy Management Limited (UK)/RMT, with the assistance of Kings College, London, gathered information and carried out risk assessments of primary care information systems in the United Kingdom for the UK National Audit Office.
Under a two-year grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Institute for Medical Risk Studies developed and promoted a transnational strategy for reducing the dangers associated with biological weapons. The Institute organized an international workshop under this grant held in Geneva. This Workshop on Preventing Disease Weaponization, co-hosted by the Secretary General of Interpol with participation of the World Health Organization, NATO, the Arab League, ASEAN and others, was attended by 35 international organizations and representatives from over 30 countries. In conjunction with the workshop, the Institute obtained data on the criminal law and legal/law enforcement measures implemented or planned pertaining to prohibitions against possession, transport, or manufacture of agents or technologies for bioweapons for more than 100 countries. The Institute summarized and distributed data for 55 of these countries to their ambassadorial representatives and to international organizations attending the Geneva Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction. Subsequently, the Institute carried out additional data gathering and distribution, producing nearly 50 seminars and workshops internationally.